Antalya is a city on the Mediterranean coast of south-western Turkey. Situated on coastal cliffs, Antalya is surrounded by mountains. Development and investment, which begun in the 1970s, has transformed the city into an international resort.

Evidence of human habitation dating back over 200 000 years has been discovered in the Carain caves 30 km to the north of Antalya city. Other findings dating back to Neolithic times and more recent periods show that the area has been populated by various ancient civilizations throughout the ages.

In 150 BC, Attalos II, King of Pergamum, founded the city of Attalia at which to base his powerful naval fleet. According to legend, Attalos II ordered his men to find "heaven on earth". After an extensive search, they discovered the region of Antalya. King Attalos rebuilt the city, giving it the name "Attaleia" which was later renamed Adalia and then Antalya. When Attalos III, the last king of Pergamom, died in 133 BC, he left his kingdom to the Romans.

Kaleiçi, the restored historical centre of the city - with its numerous hotels, bars, clubs and restaurants - retains much of its historical character. Its restoration won the Golden Apple Tourism Prize. The city includes still retains traces of its Lycian, Pamphylian and Hellenistic history, but mainly Roman, Byzantine, Seljuk and Ottoman architecture and culture pervades.
Antalya, which is shielded from the cold northerly winds by the Taurus Mountain range, has a characteristically Mediterranean climate with hot and dry summers and mild wet winters. Around 300 DATES of the year are sunny, with the sea temperature ranging from 15 °C during winter to 28 °C during summer.

In April, the temperature is usually around 15 Celsius / 59 Fahrenheit degrees. The lowest temperature is 7 Celsius / 44.6 Fahrenheit degrees and the highest temperature is 18 Celsius / 64.4 Fahrenheit for this month.

Historical Places

Olympos & Çıralı

After passing Phaselis on the Kemer to Kumluca road you will see a sign for Çirali and Olympos. Çirali is the name of the small village near the ancient ruins of the port city of Olympos, which was founded in the 2nd century BC and was abandoned in the 6th century A.D. The myth of Bellerophontes slaying the Chimera is said to have taken place here. An hours walk up a steep path will bring you to the natural phenomenon of the Chimera. Dubbed the “burning mountain” by locals the flames you see escaping the ground are the result of natural gas emissions from beneath the earth’s crust.


The ancient port of Phaselis is thought to have been founded in the 7th century BC by settlers from Rhodes. Probably one of the most important parts of east Lycia. It had three harbours: one to the north, one to the south and one used for sea warfare. A magnificent thoroughfare down the centre of the city flanked by the remains of shops, bathhouses and a theatre takes you to the site of Hadrian’s Gate.

Perched high up at over a 1000m on a plateau in the Beydag National Park the city of Termessos, which resisted all attempts at capture by Alexander the Great commands breath-taking views over the plains of Antalya.


The ancient city of Perge can be found along the Antalya to Alanya main road after turning north at Aksu. Founded in around 1200 BC its saving grace was its distance from the sea which allowed it to grow without interruption from sea pirates. The cities of Perge and Side signed an agreement with Alexander the Great in 332 BC who thus spared them the usual ravages of battle.
Perge, which enjoyed prosperity throughout the Hellenistic, Roman and Byzantine eras, boasts an impressive Amphitheatre and large stadium each with a seating capacity of 15 000 and 2 000 respectively, both well preserved and thus of great significance to archaeologists today.
One point of interest are the 30 or so open chambers situated beneath the stadium seating area which are thought to have been used as shops.


Situated a little way off the Antalya-Alanya main road just after Serik the city of Aspendos dates back to the 5th century BC. This extremely well preserved Roman amphitheatre, which was built around the 2nd century AD, was later used by the Seljuks as a caravanserai. With a seating capacity of over 17 000 it is still used today to host spectacular concerts, ballets and other significant events. The 10 mile long pressurised aqueduct you can see running along side Adpendos is a feat of Roman engineering.

After leaving Kas one sails past Uluburun and sets a course for Kekova, a spot that is like heaven on earth. One first encounters the Sicak peninsula with two islands at the end of it: Toprakada and Karaada. Kekova island stretches out from here and it is because of this island that the whole area is called Kekova. Passing among the islands and arriving at Kekova, the safest anchorage is Üçagiz, which is a good, all-round harbour.

Situated between Finike and Kaş, Myra used to be a one of the most important of six Lycian cities. Originally a coastal city the gradual build up of silt from the Demre stream has left it stranded several miles away from the sea. Myra was abandoned after the Arab invasions in the 9th century A.D. The rock tombs and amphitheatre are worth a visit as is St. Nicholas’ church nearby where the legend of Father Christmas (Santa Claus) is said to have originated.

It is believed that Arykanda was founded in 2000 BC. However, items unearthed in the area, such as bowls and coins have been dated to the 5th century BC. No remains from earlier periods have been found. The ancient city was a member of the Lycian Union, holding a single vote. The city was damaged in an earthquake in 141 and later restored with the help of Opramoas of Rhadopis. From the 4th century onwards, the people of Arykanda began coming under the influence of Christianity. However, the place was again destroyed in the 5th century, its people moving near to where the current village of Çatallar is. In the 7th and 8th centuries, with the waves of Arab invaders attacking these areas, the residents sought protection and moved to higher grounds on the mountains. Arykanda was discovered in 1838 by a British explorer. The excavations that began in 1971 are still continuing.

If you follow the road from Finike direction Elmalı, you come to Turunçova and the village of Yuvalılar. On the outskirts of this village there is the ancient city of Limyra. Excavations of the site, which began in 1969, have moved slowly and the houses in the region have not been fully excavated. The ancient city of Limyra was founded in the 5th century BC. During the reign of Pericies it was the capital of the Lycian Union and was one of the six cities in the league that held three votes. In the Byzantine period, it was a religious centre and a bishopric.

Elmalı is like a high plateau town located at an elevation of 1,050 metres and is popular for its cool climate, even on the hottest of days. Its history goes back to antiquity and a cache of ancient artifacts, known as the Elmalı Treasures, was discovered in a field near the village of Bayındır but were unfortunately smuggled out of the country.
There are a number of mosques, prayer schools and other buildings from the Beylik of Teke and the Ottoman periods. Of particular interest are the library containing a collection of Ottoman writings and the mosque and medrese (prayer school) of Ömer Paşa, (1608), student of the great Ottoman architect, Mimar Sinan. There is an earlier, Seljuk period minaret opposite the mosque. The civilian residential structures of Elmalı have been protected to a great degree. In the higher part of the town the old streets are full of houses with the traditional double bay windows. Some of these houses have been restored. To the northwest is Karaburun and the Boztepe tumuli, where many tomb chambers were unearthed. In all the chambers the walls are decorated with colourful paintings.

Simena (Kaleköy)
Kaleköy (Simena) is one of the most beautiful places of the region, one that can be reached by boat from Kaş, Demre or Üçağız. Once there, one has to climb up to its fortress that overlooks all of the small and large coves in the area and Kekova Island. The houses made of piled stones within the city walls are in harmony with the environment. When you approach the region by boat or view the areas from the top of one of the hills one of the things that catches your eye the most is the Lycian type sarcophagi in the sea.


At about 10km beyond Kalkan on the Kalkan-Fethiye highway you turn south and continue 10km along the road to Patara. Patara opened its doors to Alexander the Great, thereby earning the status of an important harbour city, in addition to having been the birthplace of St. Nicholas.

This is the oldest and largest city of the mountain province in Lycia, settled in the valley of the Xanthos river. The city itself consists of the Lycian acropolis and the parts remaining outside it, as well as the Roman acropolis. The e interesting building is the Roman theatre and the building west of the theatre. The most famous is the Harpy Monument, which is a family sarcophagus situated on a rock.

To reach Letoon, you turn west one kilometre beyond the road from Kinik to Fethiye and continue 5 km. It is known to have been one of the most important religious centres of the Lycian region. Due to the rising water level, archeological digs have been suspended. The most important edifice is the Hellenistic style theatre which has been preserved until today.

TEL: (0242) 238 56 88

The Antalya Museum is one of Turkey's best and in 1988 it was awarded the "Museum of the Year Award" of the European Council. Having a stroll around the museum helps to locate and understand the historical sites in the region to be visited later. The main displays in the museum consist of finds from excavations at Side, Perge, Karataş-Semahöyük, Arykanda, Xanthos, Limyra, Patara and the Elmalı Bayındır Tumulus.
In the museum there is an exhibition entitled Children where ancient toys are on display, natural history, prehistoric pieces from the Phrygian era, statues of gods and goddesses, underwater finds, statues of emperors, sarcophagi, mosaics and icons, while in the ethnography section there are displays in thematic and chronological categories. The Antalya Museum has collections containing artefacts from various civilisations in the region. It is worth sparing time for it either before or after you visited the sites.

For more information

- Visiting the Antalya Museum
- Walking up the gorge at Saklikent
- Seeing the ruins at Perge and Termessos
- Walking through Kaleici and the old houses of Antalya
- Taking pictures of the snowdrops in Akseki
- Buying a Dosemalti carpet
- Tasting the local jams and jellies



Introductory films on culture, history etc.,36442/promotional-films-of-turkey.html




Antalya GUIDE  With a history stretc hing back 170,000 years, Antalya is a historical city surrounded by a breathtaking environment and steeped in culture. A city such as this should be promoted effectively. This was the principal idea behind the setting up of the Antalya PromotionFoundation in 1995 that was officially established in March 1996. The Antalya Promotion Foundation was established by the Governor of Antalya, the Trade and Industry Association (ATSO), the City Municipalities, the Trade and Artists’ Associative Union (AESOB), the Society of Journalists, the Association of Travel Agencies, Akdeniz University and some other hotels, tour operators, travel agencies and commercial enterprises in the area. It now boasts 65 members.  Web :


Antalya EXPO-2016  ( Expo 2016 Antalya Presentation Film )


Brief info 21st ESEE:

This is the blog of a scientific seminar, “21st ESEE -European Seminar on Extension Education, held in Turkey in September 2013. Until then the scientific journal JAEE is a good place to look for more information about Agricultural Education and Extension.